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国际商务  英文版·第4版

国际商务 英文版·第4版

经济

  • 作 者:迈克尔 R.切恩科塔(Michael R.Czinkota),伊尔卡 A.罗恩凯尼恩(Ilkka A.Ronkainen),迈克尔 H.莫菲特(Michael H.Moffett)著
  • 出 版 社:北京:机械工业出版社
  • 出版年份:1998
  • ISBN:7111066014
  • 页数:868 页
图书介绍:
《国际商务 英文版·第4版》目录

ART 1 Introduction to International Business Theory and PractIce 1

hapter 1 The International Business Imperative 2

earning Objectives 2

pening Vignette:Looking for Work?Try the World 3

he Need for International Business 3

Definition of International Business 4

Brief History 5

lobal Linkages Today 7

he Current U.S.International Trade Position 15

Diagnosis of the U.S. Trade Position 15

he Impact of lnternational Business on the United States 15

he Structure of the Book 20

ummary 21

lobal Perspective 1.1: Free Trade Needs a Dominant Champion 7

lobal Perspective 1.2: Free Markets and The Environment 8

lobal Perspective 1.3: Ethics and Intermational BuSiness 13

lobal Perspective 1.4: Small U.S. Firms Are Moving Forward in the Global Marketplace 18

lobal Perspective 1.5: Affluence through Global Business 20

ppendix:Geographical Perspectives on International Business 23

hapter 2 The Theory of International Trade and Investment 32

earning Objectives 32

pening Vignette:Trade Booming under NAFIA 33

he Age of Mercantilism 34

lassical Trade Theory 34

he Theory of Absolute Advantage 36

he Theory of Comparative Advantage 36

Numerical Example of Classical Trade 37

ational Production Possibilities 38

he Gains from International Trade 40

oncluding Points about Classical Trade Theory 42

actor Proportions Trade Theory 42

actor Intensity in Production 42

actor Endowments,Factor Prices,and Comparative Advantage 43

ssumptions of the Factor Proportions Theory 44

he Leontief Paradox 45

inder's Overlapping Product Ranges Theory 46

nternational Investment and Product Cycle Theory 47

he Stages of the Product Cycle 47

rade Implications of the Product Cycle 48

he Contributions of Product Cycle Theory 50

he New Trade Theory 50

conomies of Scale and Imperfect Competition 50

he CompetitiVe Advantage of Nations 52

he Theory of International Investment 54

he Foreign Direct Investment Decision 54

he Theory of Foreign Direct Investment 56

irms as Seekers 56

irms as Exploiters of Imperfections 57

irms as Internalizers 60

ummary 60

lobal Perspective 2.1: Investment Destinations 58

lobal PersPective 2.2: Beijing Imposes Substantial New Taxes and Duties on Imports by Foreigners 59

art 1 Cases 64

merica for Sale—and Returned 64

amport Manufacturing 67

he Global Car Market 73

ART 2 The International Business Environment and Institutions 77

hapter 3 The lnternational Economic Activity Of the Nation:The Balance Of Payments 78

earning Objectives 78

pening Vignette:Emerging Market Firms Innovate to Raise Funds 79

undamentals of Balance of Payments Accounting 80

efining International Economic Transactions 80

he BOP as a Flow Statement 80

OP Accounting:Double—Entry BOokkeeping 81

he Accounts Of the Balance of Payments 81

he Current ACcount 82

he Capital Account 87

urrent and Capital Account Balance Relationships 92

et Errors and Omissions 94

fficial Reserves Account 94

he Balance of Payments in Total 95

he Balance of Payments as a Reflection of Economic Openness and Development 97

he Case of Mexico 97

he Case of Nepal 98

he Case of MalaYsia 98

alance of Payments Dynamics 98

erchandise Trade and Exchange Rate Dynamics 99

ummary 101

lobal Perspective 3.1: The current Account and Finland 88

lobal Perspective 3.2: "They Don't Let Just Anyone Buy a Defense Contractor 91

lobal Perspective 3.3: A Rose by Any Other Name:The Terminology of the BOP 101

hapter 4 The International Monetary System:Principles and History 104

earning Objectives 104

pening Vignette:A Matter of Exchange Rates 105

he Purpose of EXchange Rates 105

hat Is a Currency Worth? 105

he Law of One Price 106

ualities Desired in an Exchange Rate 108

nternational Monetary Systems of the Twentieth Century 109

he Gold Standsrd 110

ixed EXchange Parity Rates 110

estriction on Money Supply Growth 111

utomatic Balance Of payment Adjustment 113

he Interwar Years,19l9—1939 114

he Bretton Woods Agreement 115

he Agreement 115

he Adjustable Peg 116

he International Monetary Fund 116

he International Bank for Reconstruction and Development 117

he Experience under Bretton Woods,l946—1971 117

ollapse and Transition,197l—1973 118

loating EXchange Rates,1973—Present 119

he Rise of the Dollar l980—l985 121

ntervention in the l980s: Expectations and Coordination 121

he Plaza Agreement,September 1985 122

he Louvre Accord,February 1987 122

ndaka 123

ixed and Floating Currencies 123

he CFA Franc Zone 124

he Argentine Peso (or Dollar?) 126

he European Monetary System 127

xchange Rates,Interest Rates,and Economic Policy 132

ummary 135

lobal Perspective 4.1: "lt Pays to Be Jailed in Switzerland" 110

lobal Perspective 4.2: Purchasing Power Parity and"Le Shuttle" 113

lobal Perspective 4.3: The Origins of Monies 114

hapter 5 International Financial Markets 138

earning Objectives 138

pening Vignette:Who's Making the Most? 139

he Market for Currencies 139

xchange Rate Quotations and Terminology 141

irect and Indirect Quotations 141

ross Rates 143

ercentage Change Calculations 143

oreign Currency Market Structure 143

urrency Bid and Offer Quotes 145

arket Size and Composition 146

nternational Money Markets 147

urocurrency Markets 147

urocurrency Interest Rates 147

inking Eurocurrency Interest Rates and Exchange Rates 149

nternational Capital Markets 149

efining lnternational Financing 150

riving Forces in the International Financial Markets 152

nternational Banking and Bank Lending 153

tructure of International Banking 153

ffshore Banking 155

nternational Bank Lending 155

nternational Security Markets 156

he Euronote Market 156

he International Bond Market 157

nternational Equity Markets 157

rivate Placements 160

aining Access to International Financial Markets 160

he Debt Crisis and Currency Earnings 160

riday,August 13,1982:The Crisis 161

olutions to the Debt Crisis 163

ummary 166

lobal Perspective 5.1: Yin/Yang Balance with the Yuan 144

lobal Perspective 5.2: Taxes,Eurobonds and the Netherlands Antilles 158

lobal Perspective 5.3: Sovereign Credit Ratings 162

lobal Perspective 5.4: Spending at Core of Mexico's Woes 165

hapter 6 Economic Integration 170

earning Objectives 170

pening Vignette:Building Blocs(or Stumbling Blocs?)of Worldwide Free Trade 171

evels of Economic Integration 172

he Free Trade Area 172

he Customs Union 173

he Common Market 173

he Economic Union 173

rguments Surrounding Economic Integration 174

rade Creation and Trade Diversion 174

educed Import Prices 175

ncreased Competition and Economies of Scale 175

igher Factor Productivity 176

egionalism versus Nationalism 176

uropean Integration 177

conomic Integration in Europe from l948 to the mid—l980s 177

he European Community since the Mid—l980s 179

rganization of the EU 180

mplications of the Integrated European Market 181

orth American Economic Integration 184

.S.Canada Free Trade Agreement 184

orth American Free Trade Agreement 185

ther Economic Alliances 187

ntegration in Latin America 187

ntegration in Asia 189

ntegration in Africa and the Middle East 191

conomic Integration and the International Manager 194

artels and Commodity Price Agreements 195

ummary 196

lobal Perspective 6.1: Labor Pains of Integration 176

lobal Perspective 6.2: NAFTA Makes its Mark 186

lobal Perspective 6.3: Working the New Bloc 190

hapter 7 National Trade and Investment Policies 200

earning Objectives 200

pening Vignette Protecting Wildlife by Restricting Trade 201

ationale and Goals of Trade and Investment Policies 201

lobal Trade Regulation Since l945 203

hanges in the Global Policy Environment 206

eduction of Domestic Policy Influences 206

harpening of the Conflict between Industrialized and Developing Nations 211

olicy Responses to Changing Conditions 213

estrictions of Imports 215

estrictions of Exports 219

xport Promotion Efforts 220

mport Promotion Efforts 222

Strategic Outlook for Trade and Investment Policies 224

U.S Perspective 224

n International Perspective 225

ummary 226

lobal Perspective 7.1: Uruguay Round's Biggest Winners May Be Developing Nations 205

lobal Perspective 7.2: Brazilian Policy Shifts Change the Auto industry 207

lobal Perspective 7.3: North versus South at the Earth Summit 214

lobal Perspective 7.4: Can California Rice Stick in Japan? 217

lobal perspective 7.5: Military Exports:To Promote or Not to Promote? 220

art2 Cases 229

ebt—Nature Swaps: A Green Solution to LDC Debt 229

ho Owns Hollywood? 232

ne Afternoon at the United States International Trade Commission 234

hen“Fair Trade”Policies Backfire 238

arley—Davidson(A):Protecting Hogs 244

unding from Eximbank 248

epublica de Centroica 250

he War of the Bananas 252

orth American Free Trade Agreement 256

he Tuna and the Dolphin 258

ideo Case:Old Ways,New Game 261

ART 3 International Business and the Nation-State 265

hapter 8 Politics and Laws 266

earning Objectives 266

pening Vignette:Can U.S. Firms Abroad Do Well While Doing Good? 267

he Home—Country Perspective 268

mbargoes and Sanctions 268

xport Controls 270

Changed Environment for Export Controls 271

xport Control Problems and Conflicts 273

egulating International Business Behavior 275

ost Country Political and Legal Environment 278

olitical Action and Risk 278

conomic Risk 282

anaging the Risk 283

egal Differences and Restraints 284

he Influencing of Politics and Laws 287

nternational Relations and Laws 290

nternational Politics 290

nternational Law 290

ummary 293

lobal Perspective 8.1: The Dogfight over MiG Modernization 274

lobal Perspective 8.2: Ethics in a shrinking World 275

lobal Perspective 8.3: coping in a World of Bribes 277

lobal Perspective 8.4: Two Air Disasters,Two Cultures,Two Remedies 285

lobal Perspective 8.5: How Swiss is the Swiss Army Knife? 286

lobal Perspective 8.6: Washington:under the Influence? 289

lobal Perspective 8.7: Vietnam Embargo Ends,U,S. Firms Enter 291

hapter 9 The Cultural Challenge 296

earning Objectives 296

pening Vignette:Making Culture Work for Your Success 297

ulture Defined 298

he Elements of Culture 299

anguage 300

onverbal Language 303

eligion 304

alues and Attitudes 306

anners and Customs 306

aterial Elements 310

esthetics 310

ducation 311

ocial Institutions 312

ources of Cultural Knowledge 312

ultural Analysis 314

he Training Challenge 317

ummary 318

lobal Perspective9.1: AnAmricanfurkinParis 300

lobal Perspective9.2: Negotiating in Europe:Watch Out for the Differences 308

lobal Perspective9.3: Learning the Strange Foreign Ways 319

hapter 10 Economies in Transition 324

earning Objectives 324

pening Vignette:A Study of Two Transition Strategies 325

oing Business with Emerging Market Economies 326

Brief Historic Review 328

he Demise of the Socialist System 329

he Realities of Economic Change 331

djusting to Global Change 335

oncurrent Shifts in Trade and Investment Flows 335

esistance to Change 337

nternational Business Challenges and Opportunities 340

easons for the Emergence of State—Owned Enterprises 543

he Effect of State-Owned Enterprises on International Business 345

he Privatization Perspective 344

ummary 346

lobal Perspective 10.1:Private Business Clubs in China 334

lobal Perspective 10.2:Pro-Worker Bias in Russia 334

lobal Perspective 10.3:china at the Top of Unilever's wish List 336

lobal Perspective 10.4:The Consumer Power of Rural india 337

lobal Perspective 10.5:The Coresponsibility of the West 339

lobal Perspective 10.6:Amway the Hungarian Way 341

lobal Perspective 10.7:Russian Software Firms Look Overseas 342

lobal Perspective 10.8:Privatization sweeps the Globe 345

art 3 Cases 349

romoting U.S. Tobacco Exports:A Conflict between Trade and Health 349

nion Carbide at Bhopal 353

MEA:Its a Big Country,Someone Has to Furnish It 356

cological Cooling;The Fridge from Eastern Germany 360

ideo Case:A Taste of the West 363

ART 4 International Business Preparation and Market Entry 367

hapter 11 International Business Research 368

earning Objectives 368

pening Vignette:Globalbase Has the World Covered 369

nternational and Domestic Research 369

ecognizing the Need for International Research 370

etermining Research Objectives 371

oing International—Exporting 371

oing International—Importing 373

arket Expansion 373

onducting Secondary Research 373

dentifying Sources of Data 373

election of Secondary Data 378

nterpretation and Analysis of Secondary Data 379

onducting Primary Research 380

ndustrial versus Consumer Sources of Data 381

etermining the Research Technique 381

he International Information System 385

ummary 390

lobal Perspective 11.1: Market Research on-Line 377

lobal Perspective 11.2: Creative Research 379

lobal Perspective 11.3: Market Research in Mexico 383

lobal Perspective 11.4: Advice from Kissinger Associates 390

ppendix A: Monitors of International Issues 393

ppendix B:Selected U.S.Government Publications and Services 398

hapter 12 International Business Entry 400

earning Objectives 400

pening Vignette:A Passionate Commitment to Exporting 401

he Role of Management 401

otivations to Go Abroad 402

roactive Motivations 403

eactive Motivations 404

oncerns and Problems of Going Intemational 406

trategic Efforts of Going International 406

lternative Entry Strategies 408

ndirect Exporting and Importing 408

irect Exporting and Importing 409

nternational Intermediaries 410

xport Management Companies 412

ebb-Pomerene Associations 414

rading Companies 414

nternational Facilitators 417

rivate Sector Facilitators 417

ublic Sector Facilitators 418

ther Forms of International Market Entry and Expansion licensing 420

icensing 420

ranchising 421

Comprehensive View of International Expansion 426

ummary 426

lobal Perspective 12.1: No Pig in a Poke 410

lobal Perspective 12.2: Small Firms Need Experts to Grow FOreign Business 411

lobal Perspective 12.3: Exporting with Private Sector Help 418

lobal Perspective 12.4: Matchmaking Produces Export Sales 419

lobal Perspective 12.5: Taking Your Franchise Abroad 424

hapter 13 Multinational Corporations 432

earning Objectives 432

pening Vignette:The Stateless Corporation 433

he Multinational Corporate Phenomenon 434

he Multinational Corporation Defined 434

he World's Multinational Corporations 435

oreign Direct Investment 437

easons for Foreign Direct Investment 437

he Host-country Perspective 442

he Home-Country Perspective 447

anagement of the Relationship 447

ealing with Other Constituents 452

ransfer of Technology 452

he Basics of Technology Transfer 452

dapting Technology to Local Conditions 453

odes of Operation 454

ull Ownership 454

nterfirm Cooperation 455

ummary 463

lobal Perspective 13.1: Making it Close to Customers 441

lobal Perspective 13.2: Giving Up on Russia? 448

lobal Perspective 13.3: outsourcing Just Do It! 458

art4 Cases 468

amar lnternational 468

ollens N.V.—Holland:Surfstone 471

pectrum Color Systems,Inc 482

erman Luxury Cars:Made in the U.S.A 490

ideocase:Lakewood Forest Products 493

ideocase:ESPKIT 496

ART 5 International Business Strategy and Operations 501

hapter 14 International Marketing 502

earning Objectives 502

pening Vignette Thinking Globally Acting Locally 503

arget Market Selection 504

dentification and Screening 504

oncentration versus Diversification 509

arketing Management 511

tandardization versus Adaptation 511

roduct Policy 515

ricing Policy 520

istribution Policy 525

romotional Policy 528

ummary 533

lobal Perspective 14.1: Born Global 510

lobal Perspective 14.2: It Played in Phon Phaeng...and Peoria.T00 514

lobal Perspective 14.3: Different Ways of Getting the Job Done 524

lobal Perspective 14.4: Expanding the Social Vision:Global Community Relations 533

hapter 15 International services 538

earning Objectives 538

pening Vignette The Global Service of Plastic Money 539

ifferences between Services and Products 540

inkage between Services and Products 540

tand-Alone Services 541

he Role of Services in the Global Economy 546

lobal Transformations in the Services Sector 549

roblems in International Service Trade 551

ata Collection Problems 551

S,Disincentives to the Offering of International Services 551

lobal Regulations of Services 553

orporate Involvement in International Service Trade 554

ypical International Services 558

tarting to Offer Services Internationally 558

trategic Indications 559

ummary 561

lobal Perspective 15.1: white—Collar Jobs Move Abroad 545

lobal Perspective 15.2: Indian Exports: Not Just Carpets but Software 548

lobal Perspective 15.3: Europe Speeds Phone Competition 549

lobal Perspective 15.4: A service For Students Abroad 558

lobal Perspective 15.5: Tourism: The Global Growth Industry 559

hapter 16 International Logistics 564

eaning Objectives 564

pening Vignette African Trade Depends on Logistics 565

he Field of International Logistics 565

Definition of International Logistics 566

he Impact of International Logistics 567

ifferences between Domestic and International Logistics 568

nternational Transportation Issues 569

ransportation Infrastrueture 569

vailability of Modes 570

hoice of Modes 574

xport Documentation 577

nternational Inventory Issues 580

nternational Packaging Issues 582

nternational Storage Issues 586

torage Facilities 586

pecial Trade Zones 587

anagement of International Logistics 589

entralized Logistics Management 589

ecentralized Logistics Management 589

utsourcing Logistics Services 590

ogistics and the Environment 591

ummary 592

lobal Perspective 16.1: The Logistics Effects 0f the Channel Tunnel 570

lobal Perspective 16.2: Germany Gateway to Central Europe 571

lobal Perspective 16.3: sea-Air The Best ot Both Worlds 577

lobal Perspective 16.4: The Cost of Warehousing in Japan 587

lobal Perspective 16.5: Cutting Delivery from Two Weeks to Two Days 590

lobal Perspective 16.6: Environmental Impact on Logistics 591

hapter 17 International Financial Management 596

earning Objectives 596

pening Vignette Chinese Banks Holding Up Payments on Delivered Goods 597

verview of International Financial Management 597

mport/Export Trade Financing 598

rade Financing Using a Letter of Credit(L/C) 598

nternational Capital Budgeting 600

apital Budget Components and Decision Criteria 600

Proposed Project Evaluation 601

isks in lnternational Investments 602

apital Structure International Dimensions 604

he Capital Structure of the Firm 604

he Capital Structure of Foreign Subsidiaries 605

nternational Working Capital and Cash Flow Management 606

perating Cash Flows and Financing Cash Flows 606

Sample Cash Flow Mapping 606

nteation Cash Flows and Transfer Prices 606

ash Flow and Management 608

inancial Risk Management 610

lassification of Foreign Currency Exposures 611

ransaction Exposure 612

ransaction Exposure Management 612

isk Management versus Speculation 614

ransaction Exposure Case Lufthansa(l985) 614

urrency Risk Sharing 616

conomic Exposure 617

mpact of Economic Exposure 617

conomic Exposure Management 618

ranslation Exposure 619

he Current Rate Method 619

ranslation Exposure Management 620

nterest Rate and Currency Swaps 621

nterest Rate Swaps 621

urrency Swaps 622

ummary 623

lobal Perspective 17.1: “Lost in a Maze of Hedges” 613

lobal Perspective 17.2: Economic Exposure:Foreign Automakers in Mexico 619

hapter 18 Countertrade 624

earning Objectives 626

pening Vignette Implementing International Countertrade 627

Definition of Countertrade 628

ypes of Countertrade 631

fficial Attitudes Toward Countertrade 638

US.Policy Perspective 638

ther Government Views 640

ttitudes of Other International Organizations 640

he Corporate Situation 641

he Emergence of New Intermediaries 643

reparing for Countertrade 645

ummary 648

lobal Perspective 18.1: Turkmenistan Embraces Countertrade 630

lobal Perspective 18.2: When Governments Do Offset Deals 636

lobal Perspective 18.3: Debt Funds stud Abroad637 637

lobal Perspective 18.4: coping with Offsets 642

hapter 19 International Accounting and Taxation 652

earning Objectives 652

pening Vignette:U.S. Accounting Practices Would Halve EPS 653

ccounting Diversity 653

rincipal Accounting Differences Across Countries 654

rigins of Differences 655

lassification Systems 656

rincipal Differences: The lssues 657

he Process of Accounting Standardization 665

nternational Taxation 665

ax Jurisdictions 665

ax Types 607

ncome Categories and Taxation 668

.S.Taxation of Foreign Operations 669

axation of Foreign Branches of U.S.Corporations 669

axation of Foreign Subsidiaries of U.S.Corporations 669

alcu1ation of U.S.Taxes on ForeIgn—Source Earnings 673

oncluding Remarks Regarding U,S. Taxation of Foreign Income 675

ummary 676

lobal Perspective 19.1: The Father of Accounting:Luca Pacioli Who? 655

lobal Perspective 19.2: countertrade Accountants in the Dark 656

lobal Perspective 19.3: How Green is My Balance Sheet? 664

lobal Perspective 19.4: Did Stolichnaya Taxes Put Vodka on the Rocks? 666

lobal Perspective 19.5: TforgLessonsfromalbania 676

hapter 20 lnternational Human Resource Management 680

earning Objectives 680

pening Vignette:Global Talent Search 681

anaging Managers 682

arly Stages of Internationalization 682

dvanced Stages of Internationalization 683

nterfirm Cooperative Vennures 684

ources for Management Recruitment 686

election Criteria for Overseas Assignments 688

ulture Shock 693

epatriation 695

ompensation 696

anaging Labor Personnel 699

abor Participation in Management 700

he Role of Labor Unions 705

uman Resource Policies 706

ummary 707

lobal Perspective 20.1: The Challenge of How to Best Manage Together 685

lobal Perspective 20.2: Women's Global Career Ladder 692

lobal Perspective 20.3: How Far will Your Salary Go? 697

lobal Perspective 20.4: Workers of the World.Get Training! 701

lobal Perspective 20.5: Cooperation Worth copying 706

hapter 21 Organization and Control In International Operations 712

earning Objectives 713

pening Vignette:Borderless Management 713

rganizational Structure 714

rganizational Designs 714

ocus Of Decision Making 723

actors Affecting Structure and Decision Making 724

he Networked Global Organization 725

he Role of Country Organizations 727

ontrols 729

ypes Of Controls 730

xercising Controls 733

ummary 736

lobal Perspective 21.1: Restructuring fOr NAFTA 720

lobal Perspective 21.2: Characteristics of Success 728

lobal Perspective 21.3: The Country Manager of the 1990s 734

hapter 22 The Future 746

earning Objectives 746

pening Vignette:The Demise of the Global Firm? 747

he International Business Environment 748

he Political Environment 748

he Internal Financial Environment 752

he Effects of Population Shifts 754

he Technological Environment 754

hanges in Trade Relations 755

overnmental Policy 756

he Future of International Business Management 757

nternational Planning and Research 757

nternational Product Policy 759

nternational Communication 762

istribution Strategies 762

nternational Pricing 763

areers in Internal Business 763

urther Training 764

mployment with a Large Firm 765

mployment with a Small or Medium—Sized Firm 767

elf—Employment 771

ummary 771

lobal Perspective 22.1: The Struggle to Fill Positions in China 750

lobal Perspective 22.2: tenders Target Women in the Developing World 751

lobal Perspective 22.3: Japanese Women Make career Moves 764

lobal Perspective 22.4: Preparing for an Internationail Assignment 770

art 5 Cases 774

arley—Davidson:Hedging Hogs 774

stablishing an Overseas Law Office 775

ston Systems Corporation 778

athaWay Electronics:The Foreign Assignment 784

cdonnell Douglas:The F—18 Hornet Offset 790

harting a Course in a Global Economy 795

roll-AEG 801

tjiwarongo Crocodile Ranch 820

ideocase: The Culture of Commerce 830

lossary 833

ame Index 847

ubject Index 854

aps 10

ap 1 International Trade as a Percentage of Gross Domestic Product 10

ap 2 Current Account Balances as a Percentage of Gross Domestic Product 41

ap 3 Manufacturing:A Major Factor in Gross Domestic Product 84

ap 4 Total External Debt by Country 130

ap 5 The Locations of the World's International Financial Centers(IFCs)andInternationalOffOffshoreFinancialCenters(IOFCs) 152

ap 6 International Groupings 190

ap 7 The Global Envitonment: A Source of Conflict between Developed and Less—Developed Nations 210

ap 8 The Risk of Terrorist Activity A Factor in International Business Decisions 281

ap 9 Religions of the World A Part of Culture 307

ap 10 Emerging Economies of Central and Eastern Europe 327

ap 11 Advances in Telephone and Data Transmission Technology Facilitate the Collection of Data for International Business Research 387

ap 12 International Locations of U.S. Financing Operations 423

ap 13 The Operations ( Structure of the Multinational Firm) 445

ap 14 Income Distribution:A Factor in Evaluating Market Potential 507

ap 15 Services as a Portion of Gross Domestic Product 552

ap 16 Trade and Travel Networks 590

ap 17 Inflation Rates and Interest Rates around the World 603

ap 18 Preferred Items for Export in Countertrade Transactions 632

ap 19 Corporate Tax Rates around the World 670

ap 20 Organized Labor as a Percentage of the labor Force 702

ap 21 The European Union:An Example of Area Structure 735

ap 22 The Cost of Living in the World's Major Business Cities 764

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